The following is an exciting press release from the National Park Service:
“Whatever happens, there will be no turning back.” With this resolute declaration, Ulysses S. Grant determined the course of the Overland Campaign that thundered through Virginia in the spring of 1864. As we approach the 150th Anniversary of this campaign, Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park is proud to announce a series of programs, ceremonies, and real-time tours spanning four weeks in May 2014 to commemorate the fateful events that changed the Virginia landscape—and the nation—forever.
The observances at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House will kick off the larger National Park Service commemoration of the 1864 Overland Campaign–a signature Sesquicentennial Event. From Spotsylvania, the commemoration will follow the armies southward, to Richmond National Battlefield and Petersburg National Battlefield. The Overland Campaign observance will span nearly 90 days, three NPS areas, several local and regional sites, and engage communities from Culpeper County to Dinwiddie.
Program highlights for the Battle of the Wilderness include our opening ceremony at 10:00 a.m. on May 3, a campfire program at 7:30 p.m. on May 4, and real-time tours on May 5-6.
For the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, we particularly recommend our real-time tours on May 10 followed by our signature culminating moment that evening at 7:30 p.m. Other highlights include a full day of programming on May 12, concurrent with a 22-hour vigil for the duration of fighting at the famous “Bloody Angle,” as well as a candlelight program at 8:00 p.m. The greatest concentration of programming will be during the long weekend of May 8-12.
We will honor a special Memorial Day this year with our annual National Cemetery Illumination on May 24, and the annual Memorial Day program on May 26. “Reverberations” will tie our community’s Memorial Day Illumination to numerous other communities around the country, as we remember the price of the Overland Campaign felt across the continent.
In addition to scheduled programs, historians will staff sites on the battlefield during significant anniversary dates, and historic Ellwood Manor will be open to the public for tours and special events. Living history demonstrations will be scattered throughout other programs, and the National Park Service will offer special children’s programs during the weekends of May 3-4 and May 10-11. Except for the bus tours, which require reservations (call 540-372-3034 to make reservations) and a $25 fee, all programs are free and open to the public.
Fought in the shadow of a looming presidential election in the north, the Overland Campaign marked the first time the two great captains of the Civil War, Lee and Grant, fought against each other. Their battles generated a whirlwind of struggle, suffering, loss, and destruction that challenged both sides’ will to continue the war.
Battle of the Wilderness 150th, May 3-6, 2014
May 3, 2014
10-11:15 a.m. Opening Ceremony at Spotsylvania Court House Battlefield
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park is proud to host the Opening Ceremony for the Sesquicentennial observance of the 1864 Overland Campaign, a National Park Service Signature Event. The ceremony will occur at the Bloody Angle. Noted Civil War historian James I. Robertson, Jr. will be the keynote speaker.
1-3 p.m. Decisions and Consequences: Grant and the Landscape of War (Walking tour will meet at Ellwood).
3:30-4:30 p.m. Home Interrupted: Civilians, War, and Freedom at Ellwood
May 4, 2014
8 a.m.-12 p.m. Morning Bus Tour: March to Battle: To the Rapidan. Fee and reservations required.
1-5 p.m. Afternoon Bus Tour: Grant and Lee at War: The Wilderness. Fee and reservations required.
Noon-1 p.m.: Across Saunders Field (with Living Historians)
2-3 p.m.: The Rage of a Home Invaded: The Higgerson Farm.
4-5 p.m.: “Dark, Close Wood”: A Walk in the Wilderness. Orange Plank Road.
7:30-8:30 p.m.: Eve of Battle: A Campfire Program at Ellwood.
This night marks the 150th anniversary of the last peaceful night in 1864. Both armies entered the Wilderness anxious and hopeful of victory. Both sides would be shocked and disappointed.
May 5, 2014
1-3 p.m. Real-Time Walking Tour: Opening Shots at Saunders Field
The early afternoon advance sparked a conflagration that set the whole Wilderness ablaze in battle.
5-7 p.m. Real-Time Walking Tour: Life and Death at the Crossroads
This was the key to the whole battlefield. Lee wanted it—and Grant struggled to keep it.
May 6, 2014
6-8 a.m. Walking Tour: Sunrise in the Widow Tapp Field—Lee to the Rear!
A crushing Union attack took the Confederates to the brink of disaster—until Robert E. Lee personally entered the fight.
9:30 a.m.-Noon Walking Tour: Longstreet’s Flank Attack and Wounding
Fresh Confederate troops turned the tide of battle, until their commander was accidentally shot while leading the flank attack.
1-3 p.m. Walking Tour: Horror on the Plank Road
The seesaw battle along the Plank Road revealed an intensity that few soldiers had ever experienced. The fate of the battle depended on their actions.
6—8 p.m. Walking Tour: Gordon’s Flank Attack
Confederates exploited an unguarded Union flank and came close to victory—until Grant struck back in the dark woods.
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House 150th, May 8-18, 2014
May 8, 2014
9-11 a.m. Walking Tour: Deadly Encounter at Laurel Hill
Both armies were in a race to Spotsylvania—a race that ended in a surprise clash just north of the village.
1-3 p.m. Walking Tour: Melee and Madness at Laurel Hill—The Battle Escalates.
A late afternoon push by the Union 5th and 6th Corps, led to one of the more confusing debacles of the campaign.
4– 6 p.m. Walking Tour: A New Kind of War: Building the Mule Shoe Salient
Spotsylvania reveals the emergence and perfection of trench warfare. The remainder of the Civil War would be largely a subterranean experience—Spotsylvania best demonstrates this transition from open-field fighting to trench warfare.
May 9, 2014
7-8 p.m.: City of Hospitals, Fredericksburg—a Talk.
A program commemorating Fredericksburg’s role in the 1864 Overland Campaign, when peaceful churches and beautiful homes played host to a terrible parade of wounded brought there from the battlefields. Hundreds died here, but surgeons and volunteers saved many hundreds more in a veritable City of Hospitals. (Location: Fredericksburg Baptist Church)
May 10, 2014
8 a.m.—12 p.m.: Race to the Crossroads: Spotsylvania May 8-12, 1864. A Bus Tour. Fee and reservations required.
This tour will be an overview introduction to the opening movements of the Battle of Spotsylvania
1 p.m.—5 p.m.: Spotsylvania’s Grueling Punishment: May 12-21, 1864. A Bus Tour. Fee and reservations required.
This tour will be an overview introduction to the later days of the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House.
12:30 p.m.-3 p.m.: Warren and Hancock in Crisis: Laurel Hill on May 10th: A Real-Time Walking Tour
Laurel Hill witnessed further slaughter on May 10, with futile assaults by the Union Fifth Corps and a brief penetrating attack by the Union Second Corps. This was just as successful as Upton’s more famous attack, but has been little recognized or appreciated.
4 p.m.-6 p.m.: Upton Gets His Star: Revolutionizing Warfare: A Walking Tour
This “real-time” tour will examine one of the most famous attacks of the Overland Campaign. Emory Upton challenged conventional wisdom and created a new form of attack that could overrun manned trenches. Upton’s temporary success became the template for the May 12 attack that led to the Bloody Angle.
7:30-9 p.m.: Signature Culminating Moment
Join us as we commemorate the intensity of the Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House with words, music, and sounds, capturing the drama, voice, and flavor of the Overland Campaign.
May 11, 2014
2—3 p.m.: “Mothers’ Friendship Day” and the Civil War: Mothers and their Soldier-Sons—A Talk
One of the earliest attempts to establish a Mother’s Day came from various peace groups. One of their more dynamic activities gathered groups of mothers whose sons had fought and died on opposite sides during the Civil War.
9 a.m.—4 p.m.: Hidden Spotsylvania: A Hiking Tour
The battle and battlefield of Spotsylvania are large and often misleading. This is an opportunity to see and experience the lesser-known but important aspects of Spotsylvania.
May 12, 2014
150th Anniversary of the fight for the Bloody Angle at Spotsylvania Court House
5-7 a.m.: Union Onslaught: The Initial Attack—A Walking Tour
One of the largest assaults of the entire Civil War, Winfield S. Hancock’s Union attack, started at 4:35 a.m., May 12, 1864—triggering one of the most brutal combat experiences of all American history.
8-10 a.m.: Lee to the Rear: Confederate Crisis—A Walking Tour
To avert disaster, Robert E. Lee literally threw himself into the fight.
12:30-2:30 p.m.: Fighting on the East Face of the Salient: Stemming the Tide—A Walking Tour.
Confederates stemmed the tide by halting the Union Second Corps’ attack here—and repulsing the Union Ninth Corps in turn.
4-5 p.m.: Union Footsteps—A Walking Tour
6-7 p.m.: Confederate Footsteps—A Walking Tour
8-9 p.m.: Hallowed Ground/Consecrated Ground—A Candlelight Vigil
A candlelight vigil focused on the Bloody Angle and the eye of the storm.
6 a.m. (May 12)—4:15 a.m. (May 13): Silent Sentinels at the Bloody Angle:
The National Park Service will provide a “real-time” silent tribute to the men on both sides who endured the battle for the Bloody Angle from 4:35 a.m., May 12, 1864
(5:46 a.m., May 12, 2014) to 3:00 a.m., May 13, 1864 (4:11 a.m., May 13, 2014).
May 17, 2014
A Celebration of Freedom: Fighting For Freedom and Firesides
May 18, 2014
1-3 p.m.: The Battle of Lee’s Last Line—A Walking Tour
This attack finally convinced the Union army that they could not break the stalemate at Spotsylvania.
Memorial Day Weekend 2014, May 24-26, 2014
May 24-26: Reverberations–Fredericksburg and Our Sister Communities
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, in conjunction with the Richmond and Petersburg National Battlefield Parks, will commemorate the 1864 Overland Campaign and Memorial Day with a community outreach program. Each park will adopt “sister communities,” North and South, and send historians to those communities to link their history to that of our 1864 battlefields.
May 24, 2014
Annual Fredericksburg National Cemetery Illumination
A memorial tribute to the soldiers buried in the National Cemetery at Fredericksburg, many of whom gave their “last full measure of devotion” fighting around the Wilderness or Spotsylvania during the 1864 Overland Campaign.
May 26, 2014
Annual Memorial Day Program
A commemorative procession from downtown Fredericksburg to the National Cemetery, followed by a short address to conclude the program.
For further details and updates about these events, visit the special park website.
Whether you’re a resident of this historic city or visiting, you’ll want to check out a copy of Whurk featuring interviews, photography, poetry, literature, food, fashion, film, music, and comics from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Whurk publishes a monthly magazine that celebrates the vibrant artistic community of Virginia. By providing a venue to display artists’ work, each issue is a cultural artifact in its own right. You’ll find nothing but articles that are bold, visually engaging, and full of surprise. Whurk Magazine is freely available at over 350 locations throughout the region including Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania, Stafford, Culpeper, Alexandria, Ashland, and Richmond.
Spotsylvania County, in an effort to educate the public, inspire local pride, and promote appreciation for the County’s African American contributions to our history, has created an African American Heritage Driving Trail. This trail will not only encourage citizens, but also visitors to explore, learn, appreciate, and preserve the County’s local African American historical resources.
Approximately 41 sites were designated as having historical significance around the County. Of the 41 sites, a site selection committee narrowed down the actual trail stopping points to 11 sites. These 11 sites combine 23 historic African American events, people or places.
This project was made possible by a Preserve America Grant from the National Park Service, Department of Interior. You can find a map of the African American Heritage trail here and learn more about the 11 highlighted sites and you can also download a trail brochure here.
A few years back we were doing a weekly radio segment for Newstalk 1230 when coming up on that Christmas we had the idea of putting together a special segment. We researched, with the help of the National Park Service, 5 letters written by soldiers on and around Christmas 1862 just after the Battle of Fredericksburg. We had five local members of the tourism community read the letters including the late Butch Wimmer. As it turned out, each of the readers were actually from the state where the soldier whose letter they were reading were from. Mark Clifford, who was with Newstalk 1230 at the time produced it for us and did a great job. As the segment is timeless we put if on SoundCloud and here it is. We hope you enjoy it and hope everyone has a safe and wonderful Christmas holiday.
Founded in 1908 and named for the mother of our country’s founding father, the University of Mary Washington has built a rich history of traditions and academic excellence. The institution has evolved from its beginnings as Fredericksburg’s State Normal and Industrial School for Women to one of the nation’s premier, selective public liberal arts and sciences universities today.
From 1944 to 1972, Mary Washington functioned as the women’s college of the University of Virginia. Phi Beta Kappa, the nation’s oldest and most prestigious honorary academic organization, established a Mary Washington chapter in 1971. Shortly after Mary Washington became coed in the early 1970s, it was reorganized as an independent college. Having added a limited number of graduate and professional programs beyond the central undergraduate curriculum, and having established more than one campus, the General Assembly of Virginia in 2004 renamed the institution University of Mary Washington.
The university continued to evolve with the creation of two new colleges in the summer of 2010, when the College of Business and the College of Education joined the College of Arts and Sciences in fulfilling the University’s mission of providing rigorous undergraduate and graduate programs.
In addition to rigorous academics and small, highly interactive classes, the University of Mary Washington offers a supportive campus community that values and instills honor and integrity. Our civically, socially, and intellectually engaged community produces graduates who are articulate critical thinkers who have the confidence to explore challenges as opportunities.
The University of Mary Washington is a coeducational, public institution that offers graduate and undergraduate degrees. In addition to its primary location in the heart of historic Fredericksburg, UMW has two other campuses – one in Stafford, which caters to working professionals, and another in Dahlgren, which offers graduate science and engineering programs. There are three colleges – arts and sciences, business, and education – all of which produce graduates who are critical thinkers prepared to succeed. UMW also recently developed a Center for Economic Development, which connects faculty and students with regional initiatives and businesses seeking their assistance.
More Meet Fred coming soon!
have in common? In Meet Fred Part 4 we learn that they both grew up in this historic region and we also list a few other notable residents throughout the years.
- George Washington was of course our 1st President and leader of the American Revolutionary War.
- Mary Ball Washington was the second wife of Augustine Washington, a planter in Virginia, and the mother of George Washington and five other children.
- Augustine Washington, was the father of George Washington. He belonged to the Colony of Virginia’s landed gentry and was a planter and slaveholder.
- Fielding Lewis was a Colonel during the American Revolutionary War and the brother-in-law of George Washington. A successful merchant in Fredericksburg, VA, he had a plantation, which later became known as Kenmore.
- Elizabeth “Betty” Washington was the younger sister of George Washington and the only sister to live to adulthood. She is considered a “founding mother” of America.
- Hugh Mercer was a soldier and physician. He initially served with British forces during the Seven Years War but later became a brigadier general in the Continental Army and a close friend to George Washington. Mercer died as a result of his wounds received at the Battle of Princeton and became a fallen hero and rallying symbol of the American Revolution.
- James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States (1817–1825). Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father, the third of them to die on Independence Day, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation.
- George Weedon served as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army and as a Lieutenant under George Washington in the French and Indian War. After the war, he moved to Fredericksburg and opened a tavern. It was within Weedon’s tavern that Thomas Jefferson in January 1777 wrote the Statute of Religious Freedom; the very first document of its kind to acknowledge government recognition of religious tolerance.
- James L. Farmer, Jr., was a civil rights activist and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.
- Al Bumbry is a former Major League Baseball outfielder who played for the Baltimore Orioles and San Diego Padres from 1972 through 1985.
- Mark Lenzi was an American Olympic diver and diving coach. Lenzi was known for his Olympic gold medal in the 1992 Olympic Games, and his Olympic bronze medal in the 1996 Olympic Games on the 3 m springboard.
- Judge Reinhold is an American actor, known for co-starring in movies such as Beverly Hills Cop, Ruthless People, Fast Times at Ridgemont High, and The Santa Clause trilogy.
- Jeff Rouse is an American former competition swimmer, three-time Olympic champion, and former world record-holder in three events.
- Torrey Smith is an American football wide receiver for the Baltimore Ravens in the National Football League (NFL). He was selected by the Ravens in the second round of the 2011 NFL Draft.
- Danny McBride is an American actor, producer, screenwriter and stand-up comedian.
Another installment of Meet Fred coming soon!
One question that’s of course asked often is about odd or strange little known stories taking place in the Fredericksburg Virginia region. One of the oddest stories I have come across is an actual court case that involved George Washington when he was in his late teens. Apparently he was bathing in the Rappahannock River and his clothing was stolen from him! Well the court records tell the story from December 3, 1751.
“Ann Carrol and Mary McDaniel servants of Fredericksburg, being Committed to the Goal of this County by William Hunter Gent, on Suspicion of Felony, & Charged with robing the clothes of Mr. George Washington when he was washing in the river some time last Summer, the Court having heard several Evidences are of opinion that the said Ann Carroll be discharged, & Admitted an Evidence for our Lord the King against the said Mary McDaniel; and upon considering the whole in Evidence, & the prisoners defense, the Court are of opinion that the said Mary McDaniel is Guilty of Petty Larceny, whereupon the said Mary desired immediate punishment for the said Crime & relied on the Mercy of the Court, therefore it is ordered that the Sheriff carry her to the whipping post & inflict fifteen lashes on her bare back, and then she be discharged.”
So Ann got off but Mary ended up with fifteen lashes at the whipping post! I wonder how old she was at the time and if she lived long enough to see young Mr. Washington eventually lead the Revolution and become the nation’s first president.
Join us for the 1st Annual RF&P Grapes and Grains Holiday Spirits Festival on Saturday, November 16th 11 a.m. – 6 p.m. at the A. Smith Bowman Distillery. Kick off your holiday season with this spirited event! Enjoy wine, whiskey, and beer tastings from the area’s wineries, distillery, and brewery. Spirits will be available for purchase by the glass or bottle and can be enjoyed with friends and family at the event, or taken home to enjoy! The event also features live music, gourmet food vendors, craft vendors, and tours of the distillery! Enter to win a Christmas Tree!
For the second installment of our Meet Fred series I wanted to cover the many questions we receive regarding the Rappahannock River, a state scenic river which runs through Fredericksburg Virginia. Here are some interesting facts about the Rappahannock River which cover the questions we receive and then some!
- The name Rappahannock comes from the Native American Algonquian language meaning “river of quick rising water” or “where the tide ebbs and flows”
- Captain John Smith explored and mapped the Rappahannock in 1608 and encountered Native Americans near the fall line which is now part of the Fredericksburg region.
- The Rappahannock River made Fredericksburg an important and busy port town during America’s Colonial Period.
- The legend of George Washington throwing a rock or coin across a river would have taken place at the Rappahannock River/Ferry Farm where he grew to be a man, not the Potomac River as many assume.
- The Rappahannock River was the dividing line between the Union Army of the Potomac and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia for multiple years of the Civil War, leading to four major battles taking place in and around Fredericksburg and the major devastation that resulted to the civilian population.
- According to historians, the Rappahannock River was the first body of water to have an amphibious landing under fire, followed by the first establishment of a beachhead in combat conditions which took place during the 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg.
- The Rappahannock River became a key point in the Trail to Freedom for some 10,000 slaves as they crossed from Confederate controlled Fredericksburg across the river into Union controlled Stafford County in the Spring and Summer of 1862.
- Today, the Rappahannock is the focal point for a broad base of outdoor activities including fishing, boating, canoeing, tubing, kayaking and hiking and is a treasure to residents and visitors alike.
Another installment of Meet Fred coming soon!
Over the years in speaking with visitors to this historic region I have been asked of course numerous questions about the region and its history and some are asked consistently and some are just very interesting. Thinking about these questions as a group, I realized that the answers give an interesting overview of the area. So, over the coming weeks I will be posting some of the more prevalent and interesting questions and answers in a series entitled Meet Fred.
I guess I should start with one of the most frequently asked questions, where does Fredericksburg get its name from. Fredericksburg gets its name from Prince Frederick Louis who was born on February 1, 1707, in Hanover, Germany, as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, to Prince George, son of George, Elector of Hanover, who was also one of Frederick’s two godfathers. He was a patron of the arts and deeply involved in Cricket.
Many of the streets in Fredericksburg’s Historic District are named for members of the family including Hanover Street (they were of the House of Hanover), Caroline Street, Sophia Street, Amelia Street and Princess Anne Street to name a few.
There is an interesting story surrounding his death in 1751 as some believe it was an end result of being hit by a cricket ball, or was it tennis?
More Meet Fred coming soon!